TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF DIFFERENT EXPLANATIONS PROVIDED FOR THE TEN PLAGUES OF EGYPT

(After John S Marr and Curtis D Malloy in “An Epidemiologic Analysis of the Ten Plagues of Egypt”, Caduceus, Spring 1996, Vol 12 No 1)

 

 

Plague/Author

Water turns to blood

Plague of frogs

Plague of lice

Plague of flies

Murrain of cattle

Bryant (1810)

“Tainted and polluted streams”

Frogs and their death are emlematic of a prophetic influence

Lice: “vermin . . . pediculi”

(House?) flies representing “Zebub”

“The distemper”

Blanc (1890)

 

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infected and killed frogs

Flies transmitting anthrax

Flies transmitting anthrax

Anthrax

Velikovsky (1950)

Red meteorite dust from a comet

 

 

 

Secondary skin infections from comet dusts

Hort (1957)

Red silt and flagellated protozoa

Euglena sanguina,

Haematococcus pluvialis

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infected and killed frogs

Mosquitoes (Culex species)

Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) transmitting the fifth and sixth plagues

Anthrax

Schoental (1980)

Microfungi and Fusarium roseum contaminating waters

Frogs killed by dinoflagellates producing soluble poisons

“Vermin”

“Flies”

Mycotoxins

Schmidt (1990)

Dead fish

Frogs

 

Horseflies

 

Jacoby (1990)

Nile waters made undrinkable secondary to dead fish

Frogs

“Sand fleas” not gnats

“An insect akin to a winged ant”

 

Hoyte (1993)

Dinoflagellates Gymnodiuium and Glenodinium (unnamed species)

Dehydration and dessication killed escaping frogs

“Midges” (Culex antennatus)

Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

(See Hort)

Surra (debab) (Trypanasoma evansi)

Ceccarelli (1994)

Dinoflagellates Gymnodiuium and Glenodinium (after Hoyte)

Frogs

“Midges” (Culex antennatus)

(After Hoyte)

Combined streptococcal/ staphylococcal infections

Babesiosis

Babesiosis (Babesia bigemini)

Marr and Malloy (1996)

Freshwater cyanobacteria causing river to turn red and killing fish

Frogs leave deoxygenated waters and die, contributing to third plague

Culicoides appear from pupae hatching in sand (Hoyte), transmitting the fifth plague

Stable flies (Hort and Hoyte), transmitting the sixth plague

African horse sickness; Bluetongue; Epizootic haemorrhaghic disease

 

 

Plague/Author

Plague of boils and blains

Plague of hail

Plague of locusts

Plague of darkness

Death of firstborn

Bryant (1810)

 

“Thunder, hail, fire” destroy crops

Locusts caused famines

“A preternatural state of night”

Confluence of God’s will

Blanc (1890)

Anthrax

Hail

Locusts

Locust swarms

Anthrax

Velikovsky (1950)

Boils secondary to cometary dusts, blisters from flaming naptha

Dust, gravel and burning naptha from a comet

 

Cinder dust from a comet

An earthquake triggered by cometary impact

Hort (1957)

Anthrax

Hailstorms destroyed flax and barley but not wheat or spelt

Locusts

Sandstorms (khamsin)

Famine secondary to destruction of wheat and spelt harvests

Schoental (1980)

Secondary bacterial infection due to immuno-

suppression by trichothecenes

Hail

 

 

Mycotoxin-

induced death from mouldy feeds

Schmidt (1990)

 

 

Locusts

 

 

Jacoby (1990)

“Herpes-like infection”, “Bubonic infection”, “Inflammation of sexual organs”?

Hail

Locusts

Darkness?

 

Hoyte (1993)

Ecthyma (Group A haemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes)

Crops ruined by hailstorms

Locusts ruined crops

Sandstorms

Typhoid fever and salmonelloses (S. Typhi and enteriditis)

Ceccarelli (1994)

Babesiosis (Babesia bigemini)

Hail

 

 

 

Marr and Malloy (1996)

Glanders (farcy) Pseudomonas mallei

Hail destroying established crops and dampening stored foods

Schistocerca gregaria eat all remaining vegetation, including sprouts and seedlings

Sandstorms (khamsin) cover existing food stands and stored food supplies

Mycotoxins specific to stored grains preferentially killed first to access store